Sunday, August 30, 2009

Hari Merdeka

Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) is a national day of Malaysia commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya from British colonial rule, celebrated on August 31. In a wider context, it is to celebrate the formation of Malaysia.

Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj announced the independence of Malaya from the British on August 31, 1957 at Stadium Merdeka

Malaya Independence
The effort for independence was spearheaded by Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, the first Prime Minister of Malaysia, who led a delegation of ministers and political leaders of Malaya in negotiations with the British in London for Merdeka, or independence along with the first president of the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) Tun Dato Sir Tan Cheng Lock and fifth President of Malaysian Indian Congress Tun V.T. Sambanthan. Once it became increasingly clear that the Communist threat posed during the Malayan Emergency was petering out, agreement was reached on February 8, 1956, for Malaya to gain independence from the British Empire. However, for a number of logistical and administrative reasons, it was decided that the official proclamation of independence would only be made the next year, on August 31, 1957, at Stadium Merdeka (Independence Stadium), in Kuala Lumpur.

The formation of Malaysia
The Federation of Malaysia, comprising the States of Malaya, North Borneo (later renamed Sabah), Sarawak and Singapore was to be officially declared on the date August 31, 1963, on the 6th anniversary of Malayan independence. However, it was postponed to September 16, 1963, mainly due to Indonesian and the Philippines' opposition to the formation of Malaysia. Nevertheless, North Borneo and Singapore declared sovereignty on August 31, 1963. Indonesian opposition later escalated to a military conflict. Indonesia considered Malaysia as a new form of colonization on the provinces of Sarawak and Sabah in the island of Borneo (bordering Kalimantan, Indonesia), which they laid claim on. To assure Indonesia that Malaysia was not a form of neo-colonialism, a referendum, organized by the United Nations, and the Cobbold Commission, led by Lord Cobbold, were formed to determine whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak wished to join Malaysia. Their eventual findings which indicated substantial support for Malaysia among the peoples of Sabah and Sarawak, cleared the way for the final proclamation of Malaysia.
The formation of the Federation of Malaysia was then announced on September 16, 1963 as Malaysia Day. The Independence Day celebration is still held on August 31, the original independence date of Malaya. However, this has caused some minor discontent among East Malaysians in particular since it has been argued that celebrating the national day on August 31 is too Malaya-centric.

Modern Malaysia
In 1970, 75 percent of Malaysians living below the poverty line were Malays, the majority of Malays were still rural workers, and Malays were still largely excluded from the modern economy. The government’s response was the New Economic Policy of 1971, which was to be implemented through a series of four five-year plans from 1971 to 1990. The plan had two objectives: the elimination of poverty, particularly rural poverty, and the elimination of the identification between race and economic function. This latter policy was understood to mean a decisive shift in economic power from the Chinese to the Malays.
Poverty was tackled through an agricultural policy which resettled 250,000 Malays on newly cleared farmland, more investment in rural infrastructure, and the creation of free trade zones in rural areas to create new manufacturing jobs. During the 1970s and ‘80s rural poverty did decline, particularly in the Malayan Peninsula, but critics of the government’s policy contend that this was mainly due to the growth of overall national prosperity (due in large part to the discovery of important oil and gas reserves) and migration of rural people to the cities rather than to state intervention. Little was done to improve the living standards of the low-paid workers in plantation agriculture, although this group steadily declined as a proportion of the workforce. By 1990 the poorest parts of Malaysia were rural Sabah and Sarawak, which lagged significantly behind the rest of the country. These years saw rapid growth in Malaysian cities, particularly Kuala Lumpur, which became a magnet for immigration both from rural Malaya and from poorer neighbours such as Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand and the Philippines. Urban poverty became a problem for the first time, with shanty towns growing up around the cities. The second arm of government policy, driven mainly by Mahathir first as Education Minister and then as Prime Minister, was the transfer of economic power to the Malays. Mahathir greatly expanded the number of secondary schools and universities throughout the country, and enforced the policy of teaching in Malay rather than English. This had the effect of creating a large new Malay professional class. It also created an unofficial barrier against Chinese access to higher education, since few Chinese are sufficiently fluent in Malay to study at Malay-language universities. Chinese families therefore sent their children to universities in Singapore, Australia, Britain or the United States – by 2000, for example, 60,000 Malaysians held degrees from Australian universities. This had the unintended consequence of exposing large numbers of Malaysians to life in Western countries, creating a new source of discontent. Mahathir also greatly expanded educational opportunities for Malay women – by 2000 half of all university students were women.
Malaysia’s rapid economic progress since 1970, which was only temporarily disrupted by the Asian financial crisis of 1997, has not been matched by change in Malaysian politics. The repressive measures passed in 1970 remain in place. Malaysia has had regular elections since 1974, and although campaigning is reasonably free at election time, it is in effect a one-party state, with the UMNO-controlled National Front usually winning nearly all the seats.

Sunday, August 23, 2009


An abutment is, generally, the point where two structures or objects meet.
Specifically, an abutment may be:
the part of a structure that supports an arch.
the tooth or teeth that support a fixed or removable bridge.
the part of an implant that acts as an connection between the implant and the crown

Bridge Abutments
An abutment is an end support of a bridge superstructure.
Abutments are used for the following purposes:
to transmit the loads of from the superstructure to the foundations.
support the bearing devices.
support the backwalls.
There are different types of abutments including:
Footing-Type Abutments - each has a footing, sill and end dam, 25-30 foot spans
Pile Abutments - consist of steel or timber and can support spans of any length
Concrete Abutments - the most permanent type, and can span any length with a max height of 20 ft.

Other Civil Engineering Applications of Abutments
Abutment is also a term used by civil engineers in dam construction; moving water from a large reservoir to a channel such as a spillway, there are smooth transition walls at both sides named abutments which minimize the water's energy loss

Lake Berryessa's Glory Hole

Cross section of a spillway

Abutments in Prosthetic and Implant Dentistry
Abutment is also the term for a connecting element used to attach prosthetics to a dental implant that is Osseointegrated. These are usually called prosthetic implant abutments. These abutments can be made from a variety of materials, such as titanium, surgical stainless steel and gold. More modern abutments are now also made from zirconia, which is a white ceramic, to better complement the aesthetics of a dental implant restoration. The two images to the right show a ceramic abutment and the ceramic crown bonded to it.
Prosthetic abutments are connected to the dental implants via a screw. This screw needs to be tightened to a predetermined torque, in order to avoid screw loosening during chewing, which can often create a counter-clockwise torque on the implant-abutment interface, encouraging the abutment screw to come loose. This can largely be prevented with proper screw design and torquing of the abutment.
The images to the right show how a ceramic abutment can enhance a ceramic crown by giving it a more life-like appearance. Ceramic abutments have to be used with care, however, since their compressive strength is nowhere near that of titanium, gold or other noble metals. Most clinicians feel more comfortable using a metal prosthetic abutment in the posterior molar areas, due to the increased masticatory forces present in these areas.

Ceramic Abutment connected to implant

Ceramic crown bonded to abutment

Friday, August 21, 2009


Ramadan (Arabic: رمضان‎) (also written Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, Ramdan, Ramadaan) is an Islamic religious observance that takes place during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar; the month in which the Qur'an was revealed[Qur'an 2:185] to the Prophet Muhammad. In the western calendar, the dates of Ramadan vary, moving forward about ten days each year. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, sexual conduct, smoking, and indulging in anything that is in excess or ill-natured; from dawn until sunset Fasting is meant to teach the Muslim patience, modesty and spirituality. Ramaḍān is a time to fast for the sake of Allah, and to offer more prayer than usual. Muslims also believed through good actions, they get rewarded seventy times as much as they normally can achieve. During Ramaḍān, Muslims ask forgiveness for past sins, pray for guidance and help in refraining from everyday evils, and try to purify themselves through self-restraint and good deeds.

Origins of Ramadan
The name "Ramaḍāma" had been the name of the ninth month in the Arab world long before the arrival of Islam; the word itself derived from an Arabic root rmḍ, as in words like "ramiḍa" or "ar-ramaḍ" denoting intense heat, scorched ground and shortness of rations. In the Qu'ran, God proclaims that "fasting has been written down (as obligatory) upon you, as it was upon those before you". According to the earliest hadith, this refers to the Jewish practice of fasting on Yom Kippur.
Laylat al-Qadr, considered the most holy night of the year, is the night in which the Qur'an was revealed to Muhammad, the "Night of the Power". Muslims believe it to have occurred on an odd-numbered night during the last 10 days of Ramaḍān, either the night of the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th or 29th (in Sunni thought) or the 19th, 21st or 23rd (in Shi'a thought). Ramaḍān ends with Eid ul-Fitr, with much celebration and feasts. During the month following Ramaḍān, called Shawwal, Muslims are encouraged to fast for a further six days, known as as-Sitta al-Bīḍ, or "the white six." When fasting is over, Muslims go to Mosques in new clothes to pray the first Eid prayer. They give out presents to the young ones and greet their friends and families. They then thank God for what He has given them.
Practices during Ramaḍān
The most prominent event of this month is fasting. Every day during the month of Ramadan, Muslims around the world get up before dawn to eat Sahur, the pre-dawn meal, then they perform the fajr prayer. They have to stop eating and drinking before the call for prayer starts until the fourth prayer of the day, Maghrib. Muslims may continue to eat and drink after the sun has set until the next morning's fajr prayer call. Then the process starts all over.
Ramadān is a time of reflecting and worshiping God. Muslims are expected to put more effort into following the teachings of Islam and to avoid obscene and irreligious sights and sounds. Sexual thoughts and activities during fasting hours are also forbidden.[Qur'an 2:187] Purity of both thought and action is important. The fast is intended to be an exacting act of deep personal worship in which Muslims seek a raised awareness of closeness to God.
The act of fasting is said to redirect the heart away from worldly activities, its purpose being to cleanse the inner soul and free it from harm. It also allows Muslims to practice self-discipline, self-control, sacrifice, and empathy for those who are less fortunate; thus encouraging actions of generosity and charity. However, a certain level of self-control can be lost by those who suffer from eating disorders.
The elderly, the chronically ill, and the mentally ill are exempt from fasting, although the first two groups must endeavor to feed the poor in place of their missed fasting. Also exempt are pregnant women, women during the period of their menstruation, and women nursing their newborns. A difference of opinion exists among Islamic scholars as to whether this last group must make up the days they miss at a later date, or feed poor people as a recompense for days missed. While fasting is not considered compulsory in childhood, many children endeavor to complete as many fasts as possible as practice for later life. Lastly, those traveling are exempt, but must make up the days they miss.[Qur'an 2:184] More specifically, Twelver Shī‘ah define those who travel more than 14 miles in a day as exempt. The elderly or those who suffer from a disability or disease and have no prospect of getting better in the future can pay the cost of Iftar for a person who cannot afford it, or else they can host him in their house and have him eat with them after sunset as a way of repaying for the days they could not fast. [Qur'an 2:184]
A person who is observing Ramadan might break the fast accidentally, due to having forgotten it. In such an instance, one should spit out the food being eaten or cease the forbidden activity, immediately upon remembering the fast.
When Ramadan came to overshadow Ashura in importance, it took on some characteristics of the latter. According to the well-known hadith, the person who observes Ramadan properly will have all their past sins forgiven. According to another, "When Ramadan arrives, Heaven's gates are opened, Hell's gates are closed, and the demons are chained up" and who ever passes away will enter paradise.
Prayer and reading of the Qur'an
In addition to fasting, Muslims are encouraged to read the entire Qur'an. Some Muslims perform the recitation of the entire Qur'an by means of special prayers, called Tarawih, which are held in the mosques every night of the month, during which a whole section of the Qur'an (juz, which is 1/30 of the Qur'an) is recited. Therefore the entire Qur'an would be completed at the end of the month.
Ramadān is also a time when Muslims are to slow down from worldly affairs and focus on self-reformation, spiritual cleansing and enlightenment, establishing a link between themselves and God through prayer, supplication, charity, good deeds, kindness and helping others. Since it is a festival of giving and sharing, Muslims prepare special foods and buy gifts for their family and friends and for giving to the poor and needy who cannot afford it; this can involve buying new clothes, shoes and other items of need. There is also a social aspect involved the preparing of special foods and inviting people for the Iftar meal (the meal to open the fast).
In many Muslim and non Muslim countries with large Muslim populations, markets close down in the evening to enable people to perform prayers and consume the Iftar meal – these markets then re-open and stay open for a good part of the night. Muslims can be seen shopping, eating, spending time with their friends and family during the evening hours. In some Muslim countries, failing to fast or openly flaunting such behavior during Ramadan is considered a crime and is prosecuted as such.

Eid ul-Fitr
The Islamic holiday of Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر‎) marks the end of the fasting period of Ramadan and the first day of the following month, after another new moon has been sighted. The Eid falls after 29 or 30 days of fasting, as per the lunar sighting. Eid ul-Fitr means the Festival of Breaking the Fast; a special celebration is made. Food is donated to the poor (‘Zakat al-Fitr’), everyone puts on their best, usually new, clothes, and communal prayers are held in the early morning, followed by feasting and visiting relatives and friends. The prayer is two rakaahs only, and it is optional (Wajib) prayer as opposed to the compulsory five daily prayers.

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Oldest Tree

Pinus longaeva
Pinus longaeva, the Great Basin Bristlecone Pine, is a long-living species of tree found in the higher mountains of the southwest United States. The species is one of three closely related trees known as bristlecone pines and is sometimes known as the Intermountain or Western bristlecone pine.

Physical characteristics
It is a medium-size tree, reaching 5 to 15 m (16 to 49 ft) tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 2.5 to 3.6 m (8 ft 2 in to 11 ft 10 in) in diameter. The bark is bright orange-yellow, thin and scaly at the base of the trunk. The leaves ('needles') are in fascicles of five, stout, 2.5 to 4 cm (0.98 to 1.6 in) long, deep green to blue-green on the outer face, with stomata confined to a bright white band on the inner surfaces. The leaves show the longest persistence of any plant, with some remaining green for 45 years (Ewers & Schmid 1981).
The cones are ovoid-cylindrical, 5 to 10 cm (2.0 to 3.9 in) long and 3 to 4 cm (1.2 to 1.6 in) broad when closed, green or purple at first, ripening orange-buff when 16 months old, with numerous thin, fragile scales, each scale with a bristle-like spine 2 to 5 mm (0.079 to 0.20 in) long. The cones open to 4 to 6 cm (1.6 to 2.4 in) broad when mature, releasing the seeds immediately after opening. The seeds are 5 mm (0.20 in) long, with a 12 to 22 mm (0.47 to 0.87 in) wing; they are mostly dispersed by the wind, but some are also dispersed by Clark's Nutcrackers, which pluck the seeds out of the opening cones.
The nutcrackers use the seeds as a food resource, storing many for later use, and some of these stored seeds are not used and are able to grow into new plants. However, in many stands current reproduction is not adequate to replace old and dying trees.
It differs from Pinus aristata in that the needles always have two resin canals, and these are not interrupted and broken, so it lacks the characteristic small white resin flecks appearing on the needles in that species. From the Foxtail Pine, it differs in the cone bristles being over 2 mm (0.079 in) long, and the cones having a more rounded (not conic) base.

The species occurs in Utah, Nevada and eastern California. In California, it is restricted to the White Mountains, the Inyo Mountains, and the Panamint Range, in Mono and Inyo counties.

A specimen of Pinus longaeva

In Nevada, it is found in most of the higher ranges of the Basin and Range from the Spring Mountains near Las Vegas north to the Ruby Mountains, and in Utah, northeast to South Tent in the Wasatch Range.
A specimen of this species nicknamed "Methuselah" located in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest of the White Mountains near Bishop, California is 4,700 years old, as measured by annual ring count on a small core taken with an increment borer. Its exact location is kept secret, since an older specimen, nicknamed "Prometheus", was cut down in 1964. It is the oldest known tree in North America, and the oldest known individual tree in the world, although a clonal individual, nicknamed "Old Tjikko", a Norway Spruce in Sweden is 9,550 years old.
Among the White Mountain specimens, the oldest trees are found on north-facing slopes, with an average of 2,000 years, as compared to the 1,000 year average on the southern slopes. The climate and the durability of their wood can preserve them long after death, with dead trees as old as 7,000 years persisting next to live ones.

Cupressus sempervirens
Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean Cypress (also known as Italian, Tuscan, or Graveyard Cypress, or Pencil Pine) is a species of cypress native to the eastern Mediterranean region, in northeast Libya, southeast Greece (Crete, Rhodes), southern Turkey, Cyprus, western Syria, Lebanon, Israel and western Jordan, and also a disjunct population in Iran.
It is a medium-sized evergreen tree to 35 m (115 ft) tall, with a conic crown with level branches and variably loosely hanging branchlets. It is very long-lived, with some trees reported to be over 1,000 years old.
The foliage grows in dense sprays, dark green in colour. The leaves are scale-like, 2-5 mm long, and produced on rounded (not flattened) shoots. The seed cones are ovoid or oblong, 25-40 mm long, with 10-14 scales, green at first, maturing brown about 20–24 months after pollination. The male cones are 3-5 mm long, and release pollen in late winter.
It is moderately susceptible to cypress canker, caused by the fungus Seridium cardinale, and can suffer extensive dieback where this disease is common.
The species name sempervirens comes from the Latin for 'evergreen'.

Mediterranean Cypress has been widely cultivated as an ornamental tree for millennia away from its native range, mainly throughout the central and western Mediterranean region, and in other areas with similar hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters, including California, southwest South Africa and southern Australia. It can also be grown successfully in areas with cooler, moister summers, such as the British Isles, New Zealand and the Pacific Northwest (coastal Oregon, Washington and British Columbia).
The vast majority of the trees in cultivation are selected cultivars with a fastigiate crown, with erect branches forming a narrow to very narrow crown often less than a tenth as wide as the tree is tall. The dark green 'exclamation mark' shape of these trees is a highly characteristic signature of Mediterranean town and village landscapes. Cypress used to be used in distilleries as staves to hold mash ferments to make alcohol before the invention of stainless steel.

Sunday, August 9, 2009

Déjà vu

Déjà vu (diucapkan / deɪʒɑ ː vu ː / (mendengarkan); Perancis: [deʒa Vỹ] (mendengarkan), "sudah mulai"; juga disebut paramnesia, dari Yunani παρα "untuk", "dekat, terhadap, bertentangan dengan" + μνήμη "mnēmē "," memori ") atau promnesia, adalah pengalaman merasa yakin bahawa telah menyaksikan atau mengalami situasi yang baru sebelumnya (individu merasa seolah-olah sebuah perkara sudah terjadi atau yang telah terjadi di masa lalu), walaupun keadaan yang tepat dari sebelumnya dan mengalami ketidakpastian. Istilah ini dicipta oleh seorang pengkaji fizik Perancis, emile Boirac (1851-1917) dalam bukunya "L'Avenir des sciences psychiques" ("The Future of Psychic Sciences"), yang diperluas setelah dia menulis sebuah karangan semasa masih menuntut. Pengalaman Déjà vu biasanya disertai oleh rasa keakraban menarik, dan juga rasa "kengerian", "keadaan tidak dikenal," atau "weirdness." Yang "sebelumnya" pengalaman yang paling sering dikaitkan dengan mimpi, meskipun dalam beberapa keadaan ada perasaan yang mengalami rasa "benar-benar terjadi" di masa lalu. Pengalaman Déjà vu kelihatannya cukup umum di kalangan orang dewasa dan kanak-kanak. Referensi ke pengalaman Déjà vu juga ditemukan dalam sastera di masa lalu, menunjukkan itu bukanlah sebuah fenomena baru, ia sangat sulit untuk membangkitkan yang Déjà Vu merupakan perihal pengalaman, sehingga membuatnya menjadi subjek dari beberapa kajian. Baru-baru ini, para penyelidik telah menemukan cara untuk mencipta sensasi ini menggunakan kaedah hypnosis.

Kajian Saintifik
Sejak tahun terakhir dari abad ke-20, Déjà Vu telah dikaji secara serius didalam penelitian psikologis dan neurophysiological. Bercakap secara ilmiah, penjelasan Déjà vu tidak hanya suatu tindakan "precognition" atau "prophecy", tetapi itu adalah anomali dari memori dan memberi kesan bahawa sebuah pengalaman "being recalled." Ini adalah penjelasan atau hujah oleh fakta bahawa rasa "dingin" pada waktu yang kuat dalam banyak keadaan, tetapi keadaan yang "sebelumnya" pengalaman (bila, dimana dan bagaimana pengalaman sebelumnya terjadi) cukup samar-samar ini dapat dipameran dari ingatan yang kuat yang memiliki "unsettling" pengalaman Déjà vu itu sendiri, tetapi sedikit atau tidak ada ingatan yang spesifik atau perkara mereka "mengingat" ketika mereka yang mengalami Déjà vu. Secara khusus, hal ini dapat dari hasil tumpang tindih antara sistem neurological dan bertanggungjawab untuk memori jangka pendek (peristiwa yang dianggap sebagai hadir dalam) dan orang-orang yang bertanggungjawab untuk jangka panjang memori (peristiwa yang dianggap sebagai berada di masa lalu). Susunan perkara yang disimpan ke dalam memori sebelum adalah sedar sebahagian dari otak bahkan menerima informasi dan proses itu. Lain teori yang dieksplorasi adalah visi. Menunjukkan sebagai teori, salah satu mata akan merakam apa yang dilihat fractionally lebih cepat dari yang lain, yang membuat "ingatan kuat" sensasi atau "sama" pemandangan yang dilihat oleh milidetik kemudian di mata yang sebaliknya. Namun, ini gagal untuk menjelaskan fenomena lainnya yang terlibat, seperti bahagian auditive, terutama bahagian digital. Jika satu, misalnya, pengalaman Déjà vu dari seseorang yang kuat pada jari tangan kiri, maka Déjà vu merasa sudah tentu tidak kerana sebelah kanannya mengalami sensasi yang sama lebih dari itu mengingat bahwa tangan kiri sebelah kananya tidak akan pernah menerima input sama. Selain itu, seseorang danagn hanya satu mata masih juga akan mengalami Déjà Vu Déjà vécu (gangguan memori, mirip dengan Déjà vu berterusan).

Penerangan Alternatif
Penerangan Mistik
Déjà vu berkaitan dengan precognition, kebolehan pandang secara terus, dan sering disebut sebagai bukti untuk "psikis" kemampuan dalam masyarakat umum. Penjelasan dari bukti-bukan ilmiah menjelaskan, sifat pengalaman untuk ramalan, penglihatan (seperti yang diterima dalam mimpi), atau hidup-kenangan masa lalu. Beberapa masih percaya bahwa Déjà vu adalah sekilas tentang kehidupan yang sudah, misalnya ketika Anda membuat pilihan dalam kehidupan ini dan akan membawa Anda ke bawah jalan tertentu, bila Anda berada di jalur yang Anda miliki, sekilas hidup anda yang membuat berbagai pilihan.

Beberapa percaya Déjà vu adalah memori mimpi. Walaupun sebagian besar mimpi tidak pernah diingat, orang yang bermimpi dapat menampilkan aktiviti di kawasan otak yang memproses memori jangka panjang. Telah dispekulasi bahwa mimpi langsung ke memori jangka panjang, melangkaui memori jangka pendek secara keseluruhan. Dalam hal ini, Déjà vu mungkin memori yang lupa dengan elemen mimpi di umum dengan pengalaman yang sedang berjaga-jaga. Hal ini mungkin serupa dengan yang lain dikenal sebagai fenomena Déjà rêvé, atau "sudah bermimpi." Namun, kajian pada tikus menunjukkan bahawa jangka panjang kenangan pertama harus ditetapkan sebagai memori jangka pendek.

Penjelmaan Semula

Mereka yang percaya penjelmaan semula berteori bahawa Déjà vu disebabkan oleh fragmen-hidup dari masa lalu menjadi kenangan menyentak ke permukaan yang diketahui oleh orang. Lain berteori bahwa fenomena ini disebabkan oleh semangat bintang, atau di luar tubuh pengalaman (OBEs), di mana mungkin saja ada orang yang dikunjungi di tempat sementara mereka dgn bintang selama seseorang itu tidur. Sensasi ini mungkin juga diinterpretasikan sebagai pemenuhan terhubung ke suatu kondisi seperti yang terlihat atau dirasakan dalam firasat.

Friday, August 7, 2009

Ibnu Sina

Abu Ali al Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina, itulah nama lengkap Ibnu Sina. Ia lahir di Afsana, sebuah kota kecil dekat dengan kota Bukhara, tempat asal ahli hadits ternama Bukhari, pada tahun 981.
Ibnu Sina yang lebih dikenali di Barat dengan nama Avicenna mempunyai nama lengkap Abu Ali al- Huseyn bin Abdullah bin Hassan Ali bin Sina. Beliau merupakan seorang yang berbangsa Parsi. Menurut Ibnu Abi Ushaybi’ah ia lahir pada tahun 375 H, di desa Afshanah dekat kota Kharmaitan Propinzi Bukhara Afghanistan.

ibnu sina

Pelajaran pertama yang diterimanya pada zaman kanak-kanak adalah Al-Quran dan sastera yang didapati olehnya secara tidak formal. Ia mula belajar pada usia 5 tahun. Sementara itu sewaktu berumur 10 tahun , beliau telah berjaya menghafal Al-Quran. Pada masa umurnya meningkat 18 tahun Ibnu Sina telah menjadi "Doktor Di Raja". Disamping itu, Ibnu Sina juga telah menguasai seluruh cabang ilmu pengetahuan yang ada pada waktu itu. Ilmu-ilmu agama seperti tafsir, fiqh, perbandingan agama (ushuluddin), tasawuf dan sebagainya sudah dikuasainya ketika baru berusia 10 tahun. Pada masa kecilnya, ia dibimbing dan dididik oleh Abu Abdullah Natili, seorang sahabat karib ayahnya, dan ayahnya sendiri. Antara bidang ilmu yang berjaya dikuasainya termasuklah dalam bidang falsafah, kedoktoran, geometri, astronomi, muzik, syair, teologi, politik, matematik, fizik, kimia, sastera dan kosmologi.
Walaupun Ibnu Sina menguasai pelbagai ilmu pengetahuan termasuk falsafah tetapi beliau lebih menonjol dalam bidang perubatan sama ada sebagai seorang doktor ataupun mahaguru ilmu tersebut.
Ibnu Sina mula menjadi terkenal selepas berjaya menyembuhkan penyakit Putera Nub Ibn Nas al-Samani yang gagal diubati oleh doktor yang lain. Kehebatan dan kepakaran dalam bidang perubatan tiada tolok bandingnya sehingga beliau diberikan gelaran al-Syeikh al-Rais (Mahaguru Pertama).

Teori-Teori Anatomi Dan Fisiologi
Teori-teori anatomi dan fisiologi dalam buku-buku beliau adalah menggambarkan analogi manusia terhadap negara dan mikrokosmos (dunia kecil) terhadap alam semester sebagai makrokosmos (dunia besar). Misalnya digambarkan bahawa syurga kayangan adalah bulat dan bumi adalah persegi dan dengan demikian kepala itu bulat dan kaki itu empat persegi. Terdapat empat musim dan 12 bulan dalam setahun, dengan itu manusia memiliki empat tangkai dan lengan (anggota badan) mempunyai 12 tulang sendi. Hati (heart) adalah ‘pangeran’-nya tubuh manusia, sementera paru-paru adalah ‘menteri’-nya. Leher merupakan ‘jendela’-nya sang badan, manakala kandung empedu sebagai ‘markas pusat’-nya. Limpa dan perut sebagai ‘bumbung’ sedangkan usus merupakan sistem komunikasi dan sistem pembuangan.
Sementara itu "Canon of Medicine" memuatkan pernyataan yang tegas bahawa "darah mengalir secara terus-menerus dalam suatu lingkaran dan tak pernah berhenti" . Namun ini belum dapat dianggap sebagai suatu penemuan tentang srikulasi darah, kerana bangsa cina tidak membezakan antara urat-urat darah halus (Veins) dengan pembuluh nadi (arteries). Analogi tersebut hanyalah analogi yang digambarkan antara gerakan darah dan siklus alam semesta, pergantian musim dan gerakan-gerakan tubuh tanpa peragaan secara empirik pada keadaan yang sebenarnya.
makam ibnu sina (bahagian dalam)

Pengaruh Ibnu Sina (Avicenna)
Pengaruh Ibnu Sina sebagai seorang failasuf dan doktor perubatan dalam kebudayaan Eropah adalah luas. Buku karangannya al-Qanun Fit- Tibb (Peraturan Perubatan) terdiri daripada 14 jilid, telah dianggap sebagai himpunan perbendaharaan ilmu perubatan. Ilmu perubatan moden banyak mendapat pelajaran daripada Ibnu Sina, dari segi pengunaan ubat, diagnosis dan pembedahan.
Terjemahan Dan Bahan Rujukan al-Qanun Fit- Tibb
Pada abad ke 12 M Gerard Cremona yang berpindah ke Toledo, Sepanyol telah menterjemahkan buku Ibnu Sina ke bahasa Latin. Buku ini menjadi buku rujukan utama di universiti-universiti Eropah hingga 1500 M. Bukunya telah disalin (cetak ) sebanyak 16 kali dan 15 edisi dalam bahasa Latin dan sebuah edisi dalam bahasa Yahudi (Hebrew).Disamping itu buku tersebut turut diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Inggeris, Perancis , Sepanyol dan Itali . Pada abad ke 16 M , buku ini dicetak 21 kali.
Al-Qanun Fit-Tibb juga digunakan sebagai buku teks kedoktoran di berbagai universiti di Perancis. Misalnya di Sekolah Tinggi Kedoktoran Montpellier dan Louvin telah menggunakannya sebagai bahan rujukan pada abad ke 17 M. Sementara itu Prof. Phillip K. Hitpi telah menganggap buku tersebut sebagai "Ensiklopedia Kedoktoran".
Penulis- penulis Barat telah menganggap Ibnu Sina sebagai ‘Bapa Doktor’ kerana Ibnu Sina telah menyatupadukan teori perubatan Yunani Hippocrates dan GALEN dan pengalaman dari ahli-ahli perubatan dari India dan Parsi dan pengalaman beliau sendiri.
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